Science and pseudoscience: How do you identify between the two?

Science and pseudoscience: How do you identify between the two?

There are many different practices and fields that claim to be science. These fields may take elements from science, to disguise themselves as an actual science. These fields are called pseudoscience’s. The prefix “pseudo” means fake. The reason why pseudoscience’s disguise themselves as real science is to better establish their ideals and beliefs as true and common knowledge. Intelligent design, the belief that the earth and all of its inhabitants were created from a higher being such as God is a pseudoscience that infiltrated its way into many scientific textbooks in schools. Pseudoscience’s never do scientific research to prove facts.

Many examples of pseudoscience’s and beliefs stemming from pseudoscience’s include astrology, ESP, ghosts, intelligent design, and psychics. All of these hold ideas that are untested and have never been proven true in any standardized scientific way. They sometimes take some scientific facts and merge them with untrue knowledge in order to further establish false foundation of integrity. Listed below are the main differences between science and pseudoscience.

1. Pseudoscience, unlike science, displays unreferenced claims by expressing bogus “facts” without scientific research:

The bogus facts are usually centralized around the claim made by the pseudoscience and are never backed up by reputable sources.

2. Pseudoscience as opposed to science, does not meet guidelines when conducting so-called scientific research:

Newspaper clippings, hearsay, and citations of other pseudoscience books are all used to further their spread of false information without scientific research. They rarely or never make an independent investigation to ensure the integrity of their sources.

3. Pseudoscience creates a hypothesis just like a science in so called scientific research, but only identifies facts that back up that hypothesis.

A hypothesis usually created by pseudoscience’s for scientific research are usually tied to sensitive emotional beliefs. Therefore, conflicts that contradict it are often ignored and overlooked. Alternative possibilities for scientific research are never considered either and they always appeal to widespread misconceptions.

4. Pseudoscience relies on “subjective validation” in scientific research:

A person experiences chronic back pain every day, and one night his or her pain is greatly reduced. It just so happens that this night, the moon was full. A pseudoscience would come to the conclusion that the full moon alleviated his or her pain. Science, on the other hand, would come up with a more direct reasoning for the reduction of pain through scientific research, and not based on coincidences or circumstance.

5. Pseudoscience relies heavily on conventions of human culture, rather than the universal regularities of nature:

An example of this notion is that astrology relies heavily on months, a man-made measurement of time, to determine one’s personality, likes, and dislikes. Also, it depends on the names given to planets and stars, etc. Astronomy would not depend on names, but rather the characteristics of the planets and stars themselves for scientific research.

6. Pseudoscience always avoids applying claims to substantial tests:

Pseudo scientists never create or test their beliefs in experiments and they never follow up either. If one pseudo scientist claims to have performed an experiment to solidify his or her beliefs, another one will never test his or her conclusions in another experiment. In science, experiments are repeated over and over all over the world. Scientists are encouraged to test other scientists’ claims as well.

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